What was the northernmost part of our country like a million plus years ago during the Ice Age? Well, mega ice sheets covered the landscape and a third of earth’s land was impacted. But, let’s look at Wisconsin specifically, for example (obviously not a state back then).
About 10,000 years ago, the Ice Age slowly ended. The Wisconsin Glaciation took place around that time, leaving Wisconsin with a unique landscape of hills and depressions, gorges and dells, marshes and bogs, glacial carved streams and lakes. There is also remnants of rocks and boulders left from moraines, Eskers, drumlins and Kames. This almost sounds like a Dr. Seuss limerick. However, the later are melt-water debris that piled into particular land forms. That is according to geologists and information I found in the “Ice Age Trail Companion Guide.”
The Ice Age Trail Is Born
In 1958, the Ice Age Park and Trail Foundation (now the Ice Age Trail Alliance as of 2009) was created, resulting in formation of Wisconsin’s Ice Age Trail (IAT). The IAT follows the path of the ice age glacial activity, with over a thousand miles of trail running through 31 Wisconsin counties. It is from the Door Peninsula at Green Bay and Lake Michigan to the Saint Croix River near the Minnesota border.
The IAT is formally the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, given that it is one of only 11 National Scenic and Historic Trails. It was established as such in 1980 during the Carter Administration. And, considering the IAT is entirely within Wisconsin, it is also one of 42 Wisconsin State Trails and the only one designated specifically as a “State Scenic Trail,” according to the WI Department of Natural Resources.
According to the IAT Alliance website (www.iceagetrail.org), “more than one million people use the Ice Age Trail each year to hike and snowshoe, to backpack, to disconnect and reconnect.” In addition to snowshoeing, some sections of the trail are also open for cross-country skiing. And a few sections that correspond with a state rail trail allows bicycling. A location I know of on a shared trail in Central Wisconsin allows snowmobiling. However, the IAT does not allow ATV’s or other motorized vehicles.
Approximately 600 miles of the 1,200 mile trail is complete and the connecting routes link the unfinished segments. All of these passes through city, county and state parks, government forests and private lands. Interestingly, the trail do not only meanders through ever changing landscapes including forests, prairies and farmland, but on occasion will take hikers into villages, towns and cities. As the Alliance states on their website “this is by design – the Ice Age Trail is meant to connect people and communities.”
Ongoing work for more completion of the trail continues as the land is purchased with donation funds and government grants. The trail is managed by a partnership that includes the Ice Age Trail Alliance, The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and the National Park Service. But the muscle behind the building, maintenance and upkeep of the trail is done mostly by volunteers.
Some Segments To Snowshoe
The 1,200-mile IAT is divided into numerous segments. The intent in winter is not to try and snowshoeing across the IAT. There are specific areas with easy access trail heads that is available for short hikes. The IAT itself does not have short circular routes, so visitors would either select a specific location to snowshoe, or find a segment that coincides with other trails that may provide a circular route. To secure trail and segment information and maps, go to the IAT website at www.iceagetrail.org/trail-maps-guidebooks. Also, to follow the few segment descriptions and locations I mention below, click on this link and you will find a more detailed map of Wisconsin and the IAT.
I started at the eastern end in Potawatomi State Park just off Green Bay in the Door Peninsula. There are 2.8 miles of the IAT that runs through the park, with a large part of the trail running parallel to Sturgeon Bay. Magnificent views of the bay and limestone cliffs can be seen along the way. From the park, the IAT heads out across the peninsula and then south. It runs parallel to Lake Michigan until eventually reaching heavily populated communities just west of Milwaukee.
Visitors to the Milwaukee area can head out to the Kettle Moraine State Forest, Northern Unit or Southern Unit and strap on their snowshoes. There are roughly 31 miles of IAT to explore in the Northern Unit and another 30 miles in the Southern Unit. Both units offer varying glacial remnant terrain, such has hiked across a high rolling ridge of an Esker and looking down into a glacial lake.
From there, the IAT travels west and then takes a turn northward, continuing past the far west edge of the Madison area of Wisconsin’s State Capitol. The 3.1-mile Madison Segment crosses the University Ridge Golf Course and a Dane County Parks prairie.
The IAT trail can be accessed at the popular Devil’s Lake State Park when coming from the north, where it offers majestic views of massive boulders and rock formations sitting high above 500-foot quartzite bluffs and overlooking a 360-acre glacier-carved lake. The Devil’s Lake Segment passes along the east bluff giving it a much closer look. The IAT website states “this I arguably the most dramatic Ice Age Trail segment of all.”
Just north of Devils Lake, the trail segment splits into east and west branches. The west branch passes through the Dells of the Wisconsin River and Roche a Cri State Park both with high bluffs, and then rejoins the east trail not far from Interstate-39.
The IAT continues north through several Wisconsin counties, delving into woodlands and agricultural areas, which passes through the small kettle lakes and streams. East of Wausau is a wonderful stretch at the Eau Claire Dells Segment along the Eau Claire River. At the Dells of the Eau Claire County Park is a magnificent gorge with a waterfall flowing down into rock pools of churning water. Mylonite bedrock bluffs that line the pools and rivers are found to be about 1.8 billion years old.
From there, the trail goes northeast into the next county before taking a sharp turn on the long stretch westward. In Lincoln County, you pass through the Harrison Hills Segment to find the trail’s highest elevation of 1,875 feet above sea level on Lookout Mountain.
Continuing west, the IAT eventually passes through an area of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. The Jerry Lake Segment lies in the national forest. Along that segment the IAT forms part of a circular trail as it joins with the Chippewa Lobe Interpretive Loop. This loop offers a challenging day hike through a scenic remote area called the Ice Age Primitive Area.
The IAT then takes a turn northwesterly and comes upon the Hemlock Creek Segment before eventually reaching its most western location. This segment offers an enjoyable loop around Hemlock Creek and over a scenic footbridge.
The final segment traverses west through farmlands and takes a southwest scenic dip to the end of the trail at Interstate State Park (Wisconsin’s first state park) on the St. Croix River that passes through glacial potholes and rock lookouts. The IAT Companion Guide states that “the western terminus marker is affixed to a large glacial erratic on a basalt cliff overlooking the 100-foot-deep gorge of the Dalles of the St. Croix River.”
These are just a few of many IAT segments that I found of interest. Visit the Alliance website for further trail segment information, or purchase a Guidebook, or Atlas online at www.iceagetrail.org/store.
By Jim Joque